Education

There are ways of visually identifying deficiencies of the main elements, for example most of the phosphate is excreted in the dung so if clovers are growing better around dung pats than in adjacent areas, allowing for the fact that the pats may not have been grazed because of animal avoidance, the paddock could need more P. If clover or lucerne leaves have black spots on the under side and the spots don’t go through the leaves to the top, P is deficient.

  • If ryegrass leaf tips have a purple tinge, especially in cold adverse weather, Phosphate will be lacking
  • If clover leaves have brown spots going right through the leaves they are low in K. Urine is high in K so clover leaves are unlikely to be deficient in urine patches
  • If the grass in urine patches is much greener than the surrounding grass then N is likely to be low
  • If clover leaves area pale green in non-urine areas and dark green in urine patches, then S is likely to be low

Boron deficiency can cause the edges of clover leaves to be hard, brittle and to die. A burgundy colour can also occur. Old clover leaves become reddened an edges become hard almost like steel and brittle to the touch. New leaves can be a healthy green. High B levels and low potassium and/or drought effects can also look like this so use a herbage test to be certain.

Calcium
Calcium is the king element. It is needed more than any other element by weight and volume. Calcium is the foundation of all biological systems. Calcium is the fundamental growth inducing nutrient and the base against which other nutrients are reacted to release energy for crop growth. PH does not indicate the level of calcium availability. Sour grass and weed pressure indicate insufficient calcium availability.

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is the major electrolyte in the soil. Every cell contains nitrogen; it is the sun in every cell. The presence of nitrogen does not guarantee the presence of manufacture of true functional protein. Protein requires nitrogen plus carbohydrate or carboxylic acid that is reduced, having an amine group (NH2-) added to it, to form a single amino acid. This amino acid then links with other amino acids to form a protein. Symptoms of nitrogen deficiency include slow growth, with older leaves turning yellow then brown, especially near winter.

Phosphate
Phosphate is the major catalyst in all living systems. It is necessary for photosynthesis and metabolism to occur and is the key to obtaining high crop refractometer readings. The key to phosphate availability is soil micro organism activity. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency include slow growth, with older leaves turning purplish or dull blue green.

Potassium
Potassium is needed by plants for various metabolic activities, including enzyme functions, water use, balancing electrical charges in cells and energy release. Symptoms of potassium deficiency include slow growth, weak stems and the edges of older leaves turning yellow, then brown especially between the veins.

Sulphur
Sulphur is needed to make quality complete protein. It is needed for chlorophyll formation, root growth and nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria. Sulphur has strong fruiting energy. High nitrate levels in the plant can indicate inadequate available sulphur.

Magnesium
In the plant, magnesium is part of the chlorophyll molecule so it is necessary for photosynthesis and sugar production. It also has enzyme functions and controls cellular respiration (energy release), starch translocation and protein and oil production. Plants deficient in magnesium develop a pale yellow or white colour in older leaves between the veins; later these leaves may turn brown and die from the edges inward.

Trace Elements
The trace elements (also called micronutrients) considered essential for all healthy plants include iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron and molybdenum. Other trace minerals considered beneficial for animal health include cobalt and selenium. A trace mineral mix will be formulated specifically for your soil type and farming operation and included in your Soil Revitaliser Mix.

Natural Organic Acids

  • Fulvic Acid – aids in mobilisation and uptake of key nutrients, natural cheltor of calcium
  • Humic Acid – increases nutrient availability
  • Amino Acids – essential for the formation of true proteins

Bio Stimulants
A unique formulation derived form plant extracts and a proprietary blend of naturally occurring bacteria and fungi.

Brix levels in pasture and crops are a proxy indicator of nutritional value and range from 4 (poor) to 22 (excellent). This varies slightly from crop to crop. Farmers aim to achieve a good Brix level and if possible a level that may reduce the impact of disease and insects.

The following table indicates the Brix levels to achieve for common pasture and crops.

Crop P A G Ex Min
Ryegrass 4 8 12 18
Clover 4 8 14 18
Lucerne 4 8 16 22 14
Maize 6 10 14 18 13
Barley 6 10 14 18 18
Brassica 6 8 10 12
Turnips 4 8 8 12
Wheat 6 10 14 18 18
Oats 6 10 14 18 18
Sorghum 6 10 22 30

P=poor, A=average, G=good, Ex=excellent, Min=minimum for disease and insect protection

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